U.S. Supreme Court to Resolve Split Over Enforceability of Class Arbitration Waivers in Employment Agreements
Miller & Martin PLLC Alerts | January 19, 2017
by Brad Harvey
Last Friday, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear the appeal of three cases addressing the enforceability of mandatory arbitration agreements with class action waivers in the employment setting. These agreements require employees to bring any claim in arbitration, rather than court, and preclude class, collective or other group actions in any forum. Our prior alert reviewed the differing opinions of the Circuit Courts of Appeal and predicted that the Supreme Court would step in to resolve the issue.
What Are Employers Supposed to Do Now?
Employers should not throw out any arbitration programs they currently may utilize while they await the Supreme Court's ruling. There is no one right answer for all employers as to whether to implement arbitration agreements, jury waivers or some other alternative dispute resolution program. That said, class action protection has been a key benefit for employers, and so employers may wish to reconsider whether to implement an arbitration program, or whether to revise or even discontinue an existing program, depending on how the Court rules.
Lower Court Decisions and Anticipated Timing of Supreme Court Ruling
The three cases on appeal include the decision of the Ninth Circuit (covering California and eight other western states) in Morris v. Ernst & Young, LLP, the decision of the Seventh Circuit (covering Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin) in Lewis v. Epic Systems Corp., and the decision of the Fifth Circuit (covering Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi) in Murphy Oil USA, Inc. v. NLRB. Each decision considered the position of the National Labor Relations Board ("NLRB") that class arbitration waivers violate employees' right to engaged in "concerted activity," as protected by the National Labor Relations Act ("NLRA"). The Fifth Circuit rejected the NLRB's analysis in ruling that a class arbitration waiver was enforceable. By contrast, the Seventh and Ninth Circuits sided with the NLRB, although a prior Ninth Circuit ruling did enforce a class arbitration waiver that included an opt-out provision. The NLRB has ruled that even class arbitration waivers with opt-out provisions violate the NLRA.
The Supreme Court should hear oral arguments in mid to late April and issue a ruling by late June. If a vacant seat remains on the Court and a 4-4 tie appears likely, however, Chief Justice Roberts could choose to hold the case for the next term. In recent years, the Court, citing the strong national policy favoring arbitration under the Federal Arbitration Act, has repeatedly enforced mandatory arbitration agreements. None of these cases, however, has addressed the NLRB's position that class arbitration waivers violate the countervailing strong federal policy under the NLRA.
If you have questions concerning this alert, please contact Brad Harvey or any other member of our Labor & Employment Law Practice Group or Class & Collective Action Practice Group.